Sunday, August 14, 2016

Create a Secured Restful API App with Grails 3 and PostgreSQL- Step by Step: Part 3 of 5

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Part 3: Add PostgreSQL and start Coding

In Part 2 of this series, I secured my RSET API application with two Grails 3 plugins: Grails Spring Security Core plugin and Grails Spring Security REST pluginWith this, if I start my application by running the command: grails run-app and check http://localhost:8080, I get JSON response containing standard grails application information. When I point my browser at http://localhost:8080/dbconsole I see the embedded H2 db console that grails provides. Grails comes with in-memory H2 database. That is all good for getting started.

Now, lets add PostgreSQL to the application and do some hands-on coding. 


PostgreSQL has been gaining momentum lately among developers community and is evolving as a preferred database over Oracle or MySQL. It's also been evolving steadily to offer features of both Relational and NoSQL databases and the best part is: it's open-source.

Download PostgreSQL and install it. Go with all default installation steps. On Mac OS, it gets installed under /Library/PostgreSQL/9.5. In addition, it's good to have a GUI tool to access PostgreSQL db. PgAdmin is one such administration and development GUI tool for PostgreSQL. It's easy to use.

Now, with PostgreSQL installed we are good to do some hands-on.

Environment: Grails 3.1.6, Java 1.8, IntelliJ 15 on Mac OS X 10.9.5

Step 1 Add PostgreSQL support - Add the following run-time dependency in build.gradle file:

dependencies{ ... runtime "org.postgresql:postgresql:9.4.1208.jre7" //Java JDBC 4.1 (JRE 7+) driver for PostgreSQL ... }

Step 2 Edit application.yml, change driverClassname, username, password and url properties of dataSource as shown below (highlighted are the changes):

dataSource: pooled: true jmxExport: true driverClassName: org.postgresql.Driver username: giriapi password: giriapi #dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.PostgreSQLDialect environments: development: dataSource: dbCreate: create-drop url: jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/giriapi test: dataSource: dbCreate: update url: jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/giriapi production: dataSource: dbCreate: update url: jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/giriapi

By making the above changes we changed from Grails default H2 database to PostgreSQL.

Now prepare PostgreSQL database for our application. The following 2 steps show minimal needed: 1) a user role and 2) a database.

Step 3 Create a user role (e.g. giriapi), I used pg Admin III postgres client tool to do this. Below are the screenshot:

Click Definition tab and
enter password for the user

Step 4 Create database (e.g. giriapi) and select the user (giriapi) as the owner created in the above step as shown in the screenshot below:

Step 5 Run the app (command: grails run-app) and check database. Now, I have 4 tables created and two users created under public Schemas in PostgreSQL 9.5 (localhost:5432) database as shown in the screenshot below:

With that we are be all set to get going with PostgreSQL.

Leverage Additional PostgrSQL capabilities

As this is a RESTFul application mostly dealing resources' state represented and transferred as JSON data, it makes sense to leverage JSON capabilities offered by PostgreSQL database. Also, out-of-the-box Grails uses surrogate keys for all tables and strategy for id generation is sequence. PostgreSQL also has good support for UUIDs and I would like to leverage that capability as well. For PostgreSQL UUID native datatype we don't need any extra plugins, but for JSON and many other useful PostgreSQL native types, the Grails Postgresql Extensions Plugin provides hibernate user types. Let's add this plugin to the application now.

Step 6 Add Grails Postgresql Extensions plugin. Make the following changes in build.gradle

Add jcenter repository and plugin dependency
repositories { ... jcenter() //Bintray JCenter repo for grails postgres-extensions plugin ... } dependencies { ... //grails postgresql extensions plugin for JSON type compile 'org.grails.plugins:postgresql-extensions:4.6.6' ... }
*You can delete runtime "com.h2database:h2" dependency as we no longer use H2 in-memory database.
Also, make the following change in application.yml to change the Hibernate dialect (these steps are pretty well documented in the PostgreSQL extensions plugin documentation)

hibernate: dialect: net.kaleidos.hibernate.PostgresqlExtensionsDialect #Grails Postgresql Extensions plugin

Step 7 Now we are all set with Postgresql and it's extension plugin. Now, let's add domain model to the application.

This is the Grails approach that I liked most right from the beginning. Typically, in Web applications using Spring MVC, Hibernate ORM, many projects start either top-down from the front-end creating views and controllers, or bottom-up from the back-end designing database tables & mapping tables to domain objects. Grails makes you start with domain model, from the middle.

Domain model is the core model behind your application and generally is mapped to database. It is an important aspect of any application that needs bit more design considerations that any other aspects. The properties, relationships, data validations etc. must be considered while designing domain model. Once you get the model rightly done and have in place, it becomes the middle ground for your Grails app. Grails will take it further and expand it's reach to both sides- front-end side: the view part of MVC and back-end side: the model part with persistence support.

For this application, I chose my primary hobby Painting as the domain. Like good developers, Artists also like simplicity. So, I kept this model very simple, simple enough to cover all aspects of Grails features that I wanted to explore. The interests of an Artist's small world can be represented in a simple domain model as follows:

Domain Objects
  • Artist, ArtWork, Specification
  • AppUserRoleAppUserRoleAuthenticationToken - domain objects already in place for security
  • An Artist can own many ArtWorks (one-to-many)
  • Each Artwork has a Specification (one-to-one)
Step 8 Generate domain classes

Grails comes with pretty good command-line support for both build tasks and code-generation. The command line works in both interactive and non-interactive mode. To start grails in interactive mode, simply run grails command from the project home dir. The interactive mode supports TAB completion for all command. For instance if you are not sure which command to use for creating a domain class, simply typing cr + TAB which lists all create commands available.

I prefer  command line in interactive mode for generating all my Grails artifacts. You don't have to use command line, you can simply create groovy classes in respective folders like domain, controllers, services etc. But I prefer creating my Grails artifacts through command line create* commands as it also generates associated unit/integration test cases. Of course, it generates just skeleton classes, but it's better than creating manually to make sure that test cases are not left behind.

For creating domain class there are two commands: create-domain-class, create-domain-resource. The difference between these two is very subtle. The create-domain-resource command generates domain object annotated with @Resource making the domain object a RESTful resource.

When generating domain classes using these commands, you typically need to specify the name of your Domain class including the package name. But if you have grails.codegen.default.package property set with default package name (I have it set to com.giri) in either application.yml or application.groovy with the base package name, you can ignore the package name. Grails uses the default package name configured.

That's enough insights into this Grails domain object creation. Let's create domain objects as shown below with grails running in interactive mode.

$ grails Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM warning: ignoring option MaxPermSize=2048m; support was removed in 8.0 BUILD SUCCESSFUL | Enter a command name to run. Use TAB for completion: grails> grails> create-domain-resource Artist | Created grails-app/domain/com/giri/Artist.groovy | Created src/test/groovy/com/giri/ArtistSpec.groovy grails> create-domain-resource ArtWork | Created grails-app/domain/com/giri/ArtWork.groovy | Created src/test/groovy/com/giri/ArtWorkSpec.groovy grails> create-domain-resource Specification | Created grails-app/domain/com/giri/Specification.groovy | Created src/test/groovy/com/giri/SpecificationSpec.groovy grails>
Highlighted are the commands used to create domain classes. Also, notice that for every domin class it also generates an associated unit testcase.

For instance, the generated domain class Artist looks like:
package com.giri import* @Resource(readOnly = false, formats = ['json', 'xml']) class Artist { }

We can start adding properties, constraints and relationships to these objects. Grails implicitly provides id, version properties. If two Date properties by name dareCreatedlastUpdated are added, Grails takes care of populating them appropriately when the object is created and updated.

The @Resource is the easiest way to create a RESTful resource, in other words, it is the easiest way to expose a domain object as a REST resource. Once you annotate your domain object as a Resource, you don't need to do anything. Grails provides needed controller and URLMappings in RESTful way.

The generated domain class annotated with @Resource is missing uri attribute, without that Grails will not expose your domain object as RESTful resource and when you run grails url-mappings-report command, you will not have RESTful end-points listed for the domain object. So, don't forget to define end-point path through uri property of @Resource annotation for the domain object like:
@Resource(uri = '/api/artists', readOnly = false, formats = ['json', 'xml'])

I have also added few basic properties to Artist domain object including and id of type UUID. Now, Artist domain object looks like:
package com.giri import /** * @author Gpottepalem * Created on Aug 13, 2016 */ @Resource(uri = '/api/artists', readOnly = false, formats = ['json', 'xml']) class Artist { UUID id String firstName String lastName Date dateCreated Date lastUpdated static constraints = { id type: 'pg-uuid', generator: 'uuid2' firstName blank: false lastName blank: false } }
Highlighted is the explicitly defined id property and it's mapping for UUID, if you don't need id to be UUID, you can simply omit it and Grails provides an implicit long id mapped to appropriate db type.

If you run grails url-mappings-report, the output looks like:
Dynamic Mappings | * | ERROR: 500 | View: /error | | * | ERROR: 404 | View: /notFound | | * | /${controller}/${action}?/${id}?(.${format)? | Action: (default action)| Controller: application | * | / | Action: index | Controller: artist | GET | /api/artists/create | Action: create | | GET | /api/artists/${id}/edit | Action: edit | | POST | /api/artists | Action: save | | GET | /api/artists | Action: index | | DELETE | /api/artists/${id} | Action: delete | | PATCH | /api/artists/${id} | Action: patch | | PUT | /api/artists/${id} | Action: update | | GET | /api/artists/${id} | Action: show | Controller: restOauth | * | /oauth/access_token | Action: accessTok | | * | /oauth/${action}/${provider} | Action: (default action)| BUILD SUCCESSFUL

Now, let's start our application and try to access end-point /api/artists for getting the list of Artists.
As we have secured all our end-points /api/**, when you try to get list of Artists by issuing a curl command like this:
$ curl -i -X GET 'http://localhost:8080/api/artists'

We get a Forbidden response.
HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1 Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8 Transfer-Encoding: chunked Date: Sun, 14 Aug 2016 16:13:49 GMT {"timestamp":1471191229379,"status":403,"error":"Forbidden","message":"Access Denied","path":"/api/artists"}

Step 9 The reason for Forbidden in the above step is because we have secured all /api/** end-points. We need to fix this. To start simple, we allow everyone to access /api/artists end-point. For this, all we need to do is:
  • Annotate our Artists domain object with @Secured(['permitAll]) and
  • add anonymousAuthenticationFilter
After adding the anonymousAuthenticationFilter, application.groovy looks like:
grails.plugin.springsecurity.filterChain.chainMap = [ //Stateless chain // [ pattern: '/api/**', filters: 'JOINED_FILTERS,-anonymousAuthenticationFilter,-exceptionTranslationFilter,-authenticationProcessingFilter,-securityContextPersistenceFilter,-rememberMeAuthenticationFilter'], [ pattern: '/api/**', filters: 'JOINED_FILTERS,-exceptionTranslationFilter,-authenticationProcessingFilter,-securityContextPersistenceFilter,-rememberMeAuthenticationFilter'],

All I did was, I removed -anonymousAuthenticationFilter from the stateless filter chain. This adds it back to the chain.

Now, if I try curl command to list artists:
$ curl -i -X GET 'http://localhost:8080/api/artists'

I get the following response (notice that the list is empty):
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1 X-Application-Context: application:development Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8 Transfer-Encoding: chunked Date: Sun, 14 Aug 2016 16:37:33 GMT []

Since I allowed all to access this end-point, I don't need to login. Let's try a POST request to the end-point /api/artists to create an Artist.
curl -i -X POST -H "Content-Type:application/json" -d '{ "firstName": "Giri", "lastName": "Pottepalem" }' 'http://localhost:8080/api/artists'

I get the following response:
HTTP/1.1 201 Created Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1 X-Application-Context: application:development Location: http://localhost:8080/api/artists/ae5ff974-12e9-418a-b397-3f7cd104ea60 Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8 Transfer-Encoding: chunked Date: Sun, 14 Aug 2016 16:53:20 GMT {"id":{"class":"java.util.UUID","leastSignificantBits":-5505862214121887136,"mostSignificantBits":-5881708311393779318},"dateCreated":"2016-08-14T16:53:20Z","firstName":"Giri","lastName":"Pottepalem","lastUpdated":"2016-08-14T16:53:20Z"}

Now, let's try GET command to get the list:
curl -i -X GET 'http://localhost:8080/api/artists'

I get the following response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1 X-Application-Context: application:development Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8 Transfer-Encoding: chunked Date: Sun, 14 Aug 2016 16:55:07 GMT [{"id":{"class":"java.util.UUID","leastSignificantBits":-8933569886755140856,"mostSignificantBits":2853479693881265650},"dateCreated":"2016-08-14T16:44:36Z","firstName":"Giri","lastName":"Pottepalem","lastUpdated":"2016-08-14T16:44:36Z"}]

Notice, that id which is of type UUID is bit more elaborate than expected. Also, version is not listed. The Date fields dateCreated and lastUpdated are in the format that's not human friendly.

In the next post, I will customize the response and secure some of the end points.



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